The 45-Day Rule in 1031 Exchange


A 1031 exchange, named after Section 1031 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, is a powerful tax-deferral strategy used by real estate investors to swap like-kind properties while deferring capital gains taxes. A 1031 exchange is a tax-saving transaction that allows real estate investors to defer capital gains taxes on the sale of an investment property by reinvesting the proceeds into a similar or “like-kind” property. This exchange allows investors to keep more of their gains working for them in the form of additional investment capital, rather than paying a substantial amount of appreciation to income taxes. One critical aspect of a successful 1031 exchange is adhering to the “45-Day Rule.”  

The Role of the 45-Day Rule

The 45-day rule is one of the most crucial deadlines in a 1031 exchange. It defines the window of time within which the investor must identify potential replacement properties. Specifically, the rule states that the investor has exactly 45 calendar days from the closing of the relinquished property sale to identify suitable replacement properties for acquisition.

The 45-day rule is non-negotiable, and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) does not grant extensions for this deadline. As such, it is vital for investors to plan and execute their exchange transactions with great care and attention to detail. Failure to identify replacement properties within this timeframe could lead to disqualification of the entire 1031 exchange, resulting in the immediate realization of capital gains taxes.

Identification Options

There are three identification options that investors can use to comply with the 45-day rule:

Three-Property Rule: Investors can identify up to three potential replacement properties, regardless of their value. This option is the most commonly used and provides flexibility to pursue multiple options simultaneously.

200% Rule: Under this option, investors can identify any number of replacement properties, as long as the total fair market value of those properties does not exceed 200% of the relinquished property’s value.

95% Exception: An alternative to the three-property and 200% rules, this option allows investors to identify any number of properties, regardless of their total value, but the investor must ultimately acquire properties with a combined fair market value of at least 95% of the identified.

Other Considerations

Given the strict deadlines, it is crucial for investors to perform due diligence well in advance to identify suitable replacement properties. Engaging qualified real estate professionals, such as real estate agents, CPAs, and consultants, can significantly aid in the selection process. Investors must keep in mind that the 45-day rule also applies when multiple properties are sold in the exchange, regardless of whether the transactions are linked or separate.

The identification must be made in writing. This can typically be done through a letter or a form provided by your qualified intermediary. Electronic communication or fax may also be acceptable in some cases. Check with your qualified intermediary and tax professional to ensure the documentation is proper and timely.


The 45-day rule is a fundamental aspect of a successful 1031 exchange. Adhering to this strict timeline and carefully selecting appropriate replacement properties are critical for investors seeking to defer capital gains taxes and optimize their investment potential. By understanding the importance of this rule and seeking professional advice when needed, investors can navigate the 1031 exchange process with confidence and achieve their long-term financial goals.

Voss Real Estate Advisors

October 11, 2023

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