Maximizing Estate Planning Benefits Utilizing 1031 Exchanges, Qualified Opportunity Zones (QOZs), and Delaware Statutory Trusts (DSTs)

Maximizing Estate Planning


Estate planning is a critical aspect of financial management that ensures the smooth transition of assets to your heirs while minimizing tax liabilities. Property owners are often concerned with the capital gains associated with real estate and prefer to wait for the step up in basis provided to heirs and beneficiaries under the current estate tax provisions of the United States. However, in recent years, powerful strategies have emerged that can help individuals and families preserve and grow their wealth while allowing for tax-deferred diversification of real estate. 

The typical approach is to take your highly appreciated real estate property, execute a 1031 exchange by selling the property and reinvesting the proceeds into a QOZ or a DST. Your heirs inherit your ownership interests in the QOZ or DST and continue to benefit from tax deferrals and potential tax-free appreciation in a diversified real estate portfolio and relieve them of the day to day management of inherited real estate

Understanding 1031 Exchanges

A 1031 exchange, also known as a like-kind exchange, is a provision in the U.S. tax code that allows real estate investors to defer capital gains taxes when they sell an investment property and reinvest the proceeds into another “like-kind” property. This strategy has been a favorite among real estate investors for decades, but it can also play a crucial role in estate planning.

Using a 1031 exchange in your estate planning allows you to transfer real estate assets to your heirs without triggering immediate capital gains taxes. Your beneficiaries inherit the property with its original cost basis, potentially allowing them to continue to defer taxes until they decide to sell.

Leveraging Qualified Opportunity Zones

Qualified Opportunity Zones (QOZs) are economically distressed areas designated by the government to stimulate investment and economic development. Investors who place capital gains into Qualified Opportunity Funds (QOFs) and deploy that capital within QOZs can benefit from substantial tax incentives, including temporary tax deferrals and tax-free appreciation of their investments.

Integrating QOZs into estate planning can be particularly advantageous. By investing in a QOF, you can pass on the benefits of tax-free appreciation to your heirs. When your beneficiaries eventually sell the QOZ investment, they may pay little to no capital gains taxes on the appreciation, thereby preserving more wealth for future generations.

Delaware Statutory Trusts (DSTs): A Versatile Estate Planning Tool

Delaware Statutory Trusts (DSTs) are a legal structure that allows investors to pool their resources and invest in real estate properties managed by a trustee. DSTs are often used in 1031 exchanges, as they enable investors to meet the requirement of reinvesting in “like-kind” properties without the burden of active property management.

DSTs allow you to divide ownership interests among multiple beneficiaries easily. This simplifies the distribution of your real estate assets to your heirs according to your wishes.  DSTs are managed by professional trustees who oversee property operations, ensuring a passive investment for beneficiaries who may not have real estate expertise. When DSTs are used in conjunction with 1031 exchanges and QOZ investments, you can strategically position your heirs to inherit tax-deferred or tax-free assets. 

DSTs offer a level of liquidity that is not typically associated with direct real estate ownership. While real estate is known for being illiquid, DST interests can often be sold on the secondary market. This liquidity provides investors with an exit strategy should they need to access their investment capital quickly.


Estate planning is not just about preserving your wealth; it’s also about leveraging legal and financial strategies to pass on a stronger financial legacy to your heirs. By integrating 1031 exchanges, Qualified Opportunity Zones, and Delaware Statutory Trusts into your estate plan, you can optimize tax efficiency and position your loved ones for financial success. However, these strategies can be complex and require careful consideration. It’s essential to consult with financial and legal professionals who specialize in estate planning to create a tailored plan that meets your specific needs and goals.

Voss Real Estate Advisors

October 6, 2023

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