How Average and Median Values Can Distort Real Estate Perceptions in a Geographic Area

Average vs Median

Real estate statistics are often cited in market analyses, reports, and news articles, particularly focusing on average and median property values. While these metrics offer insights into a region’s real estate market, they can sometimes present a distorted view of the actual market conditions in a specific geographic area. Understanding how these statistical measures can provide insight or subtly mislead is essential for buyers, sellers, and investors.

The Average Value: A Skewed Perspective

The average, or mean, value of properties in a region is calculated by summing the total value of all properties and dividing by the number of properties. This method, while straightforward, has a significant drawback: it is highly sensitive to extreme values.

In areas where high-value properties or luxury estates are present, the average can be skewed upwards. This creates an illusion that the general property values in the area are higher than they actually are. For example, if a neighborhood mostly consists of homes valued at around $300,000, but it also includes a few multi-million dollar estates, the average price could suggest a much wealthier area than it truly is.

The Median Value: A Middle Ground, But Not Always Representative

The median value is the middle value in a list of numbers sorted from lowest to highest. It is less affected by outliers compared to the average, making it a more stable indicator in diverse markets. However, it too has limitations.

While the median provides a better central tendency measure than the average in areas with significant value disparities, it can hide the extremes. In rural areas, where property types can range from small cottages to large estates, the median value might better represent what a middle-of-the-road buyer might encounter. 

However, it still doesn’t account for the diversity of the property types and sizes. The median does not give any indication of the distribution of values. Two neighborhoods with the same median price can have very different real estate profiles—one might have a broad mix of low and high-value properties, while the other could be more homogenous.

Alternative Approaches

To gain a more comprehensive understanding of real estate values, consider a combination of the following approaches:

Segmented Analysis: Breaking down the market into segments (e.g., by property type, size, or specific locations) can provide a clearer picture of each segment’s unique dynamics.

Quantile Analysis: Looking at different quantiles (e.g., 25th, 75th percentiles) can help understand the distribution of property values more comprehensively.

Trend Analysis: Examining how values have changed over time can offer insights into the market’s direction and momentum.


While average and median values are useful starting points for understanding real estate prices in a specific area, they have limitations and can sometimes be misleading. A more detailed analysis, considering various market segments and trends, can provide a richer and more accurate picture of the real estate landscape.

Real estate decisions should be informed by a comprehensive analysis that considers various factors, not just single statistical measures. Understanding the limitations of average and median values is a key step in achieving a realistic view of any real estate market.

Enhance your real estate knowledge and make informed decisions. Start your comprehensive analysis journey now with Voss Real Estate Advisors.

Voss Real Estate Advisors

November 29, 2023

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